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Treatment - pain control


Pain control is usually necessary in the IC/PBS treatment plan. The pain of IC/PBS has been rated equivalent to cancer pain and may lead to central sensitization if untreated.

  • Medication. The use of a variety of traditional pain medications, including opiates and synthetic opioids like tramadol, is often necessary to treat the varying degrees of pain. Even children with IC/PBS should be appropriately addressed regarding pelvic pain, and receive necessary treatment to manage it.
  • Neuromodulation. Neuromodulation can be successful in treating IC/PBS symptoms, including pain. Electronic pain-killing options include TENS. PTNS stimulators have also been used, with varying degrees of success. Percutaneous sacral nerve root stimulation (PNS) was able to produce statistically significant improvements in several parameters, including pain.
  • Acupuncture. A 2002 review study reported that acupuncture alleviates pain associated with IC/PBS as part of multimodal treatment. While a 1987 study showed that 11 of 14 (78%) patients had a >50% reduction in pain, another study (published in 1993) found no beneficial effect. A 2008 review found that although there are hardly any controlled studies on alternative medicine and IC/PBS, "rather good results have been obtained" when acupuncture is combined with other treatments.
  • Biofeedback. Biofeedback, a relaxation technique aimed at helping people control functions of the autonomous nervous system, has shown some benefit in controlling pain associated with IC/PBS as part of a multimodal approach that may also include medication or hydrodistention of the bladder.

Other articles from the section: Interstitial cystitis

Nomenclature

  Originally called interstitial cystitis, the name for this disorder changed to interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in the period 2002-2005. In 2007, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) began using the umbrella term Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndromes (UCPPS) to refer to pain syndromes associated with the bladder (i.e. interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, IC/PBS) and the prostate gland (i.e. chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic ...

Section: Interstitial cystitis

Treatment - surgery

  Surgical interventions are rarely used for IC/PBS. Surgical intervention is very unpredicatable for IC/PBS, and is considered a treatment of last resort when all other treatment modalities have failed and pain is severe. Some patients who opt for surgical intervention continue to experience pain after surgery. Surgical interventions for IC/PBS include ...

Section: Interstitial cystitis

Causes

  The cause of IC/PBS is unknown, though several theories have been put forward (these include autoimmune, neurologic, allergic and genetic). Regardless of the origin, it is clear that the majority of IC/PBS patients struggle with a damaged urothelium, or bladder lining. When the surface glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer is damaged (via a urinary tract infection (UTI), excessive consumption of coffee or sodas, traumatic injury, etc.), urinary chemicals can "leak" into surrounding tissues, causing pain, inflammation, and urinary symptoms. Oral ...

Section: Interstitial cystitis

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