Alphabetical list:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Q Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

With Viagra get an erection most powerful. Cheap generic viagra (sildenafil) has the safety and effective of global recognition and acts about 45 minutes after the first intake.

Diagnosis


Diagnosis has been greatly simplified in recent years with the development of two new methodologies. The Pelvic Pain Urgency/Frequency (PUF) Patient Survey, created by C. Lowell Parsons, is a short questionnaire that will help doctors identify if pelvic pain could be coming from the bladder. The KCl test, also known as the potassium sensitivity test, uses a mild potassium solution to test the integrity of the bladder wall. Though the latter is not specific for IC/PBS, it has been determined to be helpful in predicting the use of compounds, such as pentosan polysulphate, which are designed to help repair the GAG layer. The previous gold standard test for IC/PBS was the use of hydrodistention with cystoscopy. Researchers, however, determined that this visual examination of the bladder wall after stretching the bladder was not specific for IC/PBS and that the test, itself, can contribute to the development of small glomerulations (that is, petechial hemorrhages) often found in IC/PBS. Thus, a diagnosis of IC/PBS is one of exclusion, as well as a review of clinical symptoms.

In 2006, the ESSIC society proposed more rigorous and demanding diagnostic methods with specific classification criteria so that it cannot be confused with other, similar conditions. Specifically, they require that a patient must have pain associated with the bladder, accompanied by one other urinary symptom. Thus, a patient with just frequency or urgency would be excluded from a diagnosis. Secondly, they strongly encourage the exclusion of confusable diseases through an extensive and expensive series of tests including (A) a medical history and physical exam, (B) a dipstick urinalysis, various urine cultures, and a serum PSA in men over 40, (C) flowmetry and post-void residual urine volume by ultrasound scanning and (D) cystoscopy. A diagnosis of IC/PBS would be confirmed with a hydrodistention during cystoscopy with biopsy.

They also propose a ranking system based upon the physical findings in the bladder. Patients would receive a numeric and letter based score based upon the severity of their disease as found during the hydrodistention. A score of 1-3 would relate to the severity of the disease and a rating of A-C represents biopsy findings. Thus, a patient with 1A would have very mild symptoms and disease while a patient with 3C would have the worst available symptoms.

In 2009, Japanese researchers identified a urinary marker called phenylacetylglutamine that could be used for early diagnosis.


Other articles from the section: Interstitial cystitis

Treatment - bladder distension

  Bladder distension (a procedure which stretches the bladder capacity, done under general anaesthesia) has shown some success in reducing urinary frequency and giving pain relief to patients. However, many experts still cannot understand precisely how this can cause pain relief. Recent studies showing that pressure on ...

Section: Interstitial cystitis

Treatment - pain control

  Pain control is usually necessary in the IC/PBS treatment plan. The pain of IC/PBS has been rated equivalent to cancer pain and may lead to central sensitization if untreated.  Medication. The use of a variety of traditional pain medications, including opiates and synthetic opioids like tramadol, is ...

Section: Interstitial cystitis

Treatment - medication

  As recently as a decade ago, treatments available were limited to the use of astringent instillations, such as chlorpactin (oxychlorosene) or silver nitrate, designed to kill "infection" and/or strip off the bladder lining. In 2005, our understanding of IC/PBS has improved dramatically and these therapies are now no longer done. Rather, IC/PBS therapy is typically multi-modal, including the use of a bladder coating, an antihistamine to help control mast cell activity and a ...

Section: Interstitial cystitis

News

December 20, 2009

Wii, Xbox 360 and Other Video Games Offer Some Benefits

Wii, Xbox 360, PlayStation, and other video games are hot on holiday gift lists, but some parents wonder whether these games offer any benefits or are detrimental to kids. The results of a new study may put some minds at ease, ...

December 18, 2009

Should You Be Shoveling Snow?

Yes, the weather outside is frightful, and soon you will have to think about shoveling snow. But should you be the one doing the work? Who should and should not shovel snow, and ...

December 17, 2009

Athletes who take NSAID's to prevent pain may be doing more harm than good

According to Stuart Warden, a researcher who studies musculoskeletal health and sports medicine, athletes who ritualistically take NSAID's to prevent post event and workout soreness and ...