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Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome - diagnosis


There are no definitive diagnostic tests for CP/CPPS. This is a poorly understood disorder, even though it accounts for 90%-95% of prostatitis diagnoses. It is found in men of any age, with the peak onset in the early 30s. CP/CPPS may be inflammatory (Category IIIa) or non-inflammatory (Category IIIb), based on levels of pus cells in expressed prostatic secretions (EPS), but these subcategories are of limited use clinically. In the inflammatory form, urine, semen, and other fluids from the prostate contain pus cells (dead white blood cells or WBCs), whereas in the non-inflammatory form no pus cells are present. Recent studies have questioned the distinction between categories IIIa and IIIb, since both categories show evidence of inflammation if pus cells are ignored and other more subtle signs of inflammation, like cytokines, are measured. In 2006, Chinese researchers found that men with categories IIIa and IIIb both had significantly and similarly raised levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF?1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-? in their EPS when compared with controls; therefore measurement of these cytokines could be used to diagnose category III prostatitis.

For CP/CPPS patients, analysis of urine and expressed prostatic secretions for leukocytes is debatable, especially due to the fact that the differentiation between patients with inflammatory and non-inflammatory subgroups of CP/CPPS is not useful. Serum PSA tests, routine imaging of the prostate, and tests for Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma provide no benefit for the patient.

Extraprostatic abdominal/pelvic tenderness is present in >50% of patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome but only 7% of controls.

Normal men have slightly more bacteria in their semen than men with CPPS. The traditional Stamey 4-glass test is invalid for diagnosis of this disorder, and inflammation cannot be localized to any particular area of the lower GU tract. Men with CP/CPPS are more likely than the general population to suffer from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Experimental tests that could be useful in the future include tests to measure semen and prostate fluid cytokine levels. Various studies have shown increases in markers for inflammation such as elevated levels of cytokines, myeloperoxidase, and chemokines.

Bladder neck hypertrophy and urethral stricture may both cause similar symptoms through urinary reflux (inter alia), and can be excluded through flexible cytoscopy and urodynamic tests.


Other articles from the section: Prostatitis

Chronic bacterial prostatitis - diagnosis

  In chronic bacterial prostatitis there are bacteria in the prostate but usually no symptoms. The prostate infection is diagnosed by culturing urine as well as prostate fluid (expressed prostatic secretions or EPS) which are obtained by the doctor doing a rectal exam and putting pressure on the prostate. If no fluid is recovered after this prostatic massage, a post massage urine should also contain any prostatic bacteria. Prostate specific antigen levels may be elevated, although there is no malignancy. Semen analysis is a useful diagnostic ...

Section: Prostatitis

Chronic bacterial prostatitis - signs and symptoms

  Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a relatively rare condition - occurs in less than 5% of patients with prostate-related non-BPH lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) - that usually presents with an intermittent UTI-type picture and that is defined as recurrent urinary tract infections in men originating from a chronic infection in the prostate. Dr. Weidner, Professor of Medicine, Department of Urology, University of Gie?en, has stated: "In studies of 656 men, we seldom found chronic bacterial prostatitis. It is truly a rare disease. Most of those ...

Section: Prostatitis

Chronic bacterial prostatitis - prognosis

  Over time, the relapse rate is high, exceeding 50%. A 2007 study showed that repeated courses of combination antibiotics may eradicate infection in 83.9% of patients with clinical remission extending throughout a follow-up period of 30 months for 94% of these patients.    

Section: Prostatitis

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